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Technical Bulletins

  • Water Repellents: Care And Maintenance – Technical Bulletin #35

    Water Repellents: Care And Maintenance – Technical Bulletin #35

    The technology of waterproofing masonry materials has improved considerably in the last few years and many durable water repellent materials are available which can reduce water intrusion through brick, stone and mortar joints. Proper application of waterproofing materials can be a long lasting minimizer of efflorescence, mildew, staining and dirt. Many materials are offered with…

  • Degrees Of Customization: Design Tips – Technical Bulletin #45

    Degrees Of Customization: Design Tips – Technical Bulletin #45

    Improvements in the availability and economy of Cast Stone can often be achieved when the Specifier balances the needs of a project with the degree of custom shapes needed for the cast stone installation.  The indirect labor costs of design, layout, supervision, coordination and mould making needed for a “full custom” project can greatly exceed…

  • Seismic Considerations: Design Tips – Technical Bulletin #34

    Seismic Considerations: Design Tips – Technical Bulletin #34

    Seismic and wind load are the principal live loads which are considered in designing masonry walls. Seismic loads may be a major, minor or inconsiderable factor in wall design, depending on the geographical location of the structure. Seismic zones, ranging in severity of effects to be considered, from a low of 0 to a high…

  • Use Of Reinforcement For Cast Stone: Design Tips – Technical Bulletin #51

    One of the advantages of Cast Stone over natural stone is its ability to contain integral reinforcement for added strength. This gives the material a distinct advantage by combining the high compressive strength of the stone materials with the tensile strength of billet steel reinforcing bars, to provide safety and control of cracking. The preferred…

  • Patching: Care And Maintenance – Technical Bulletin #38

    The best insurance against chipped stone is care in handling and protection of the unit after installation. Even with all of the special care and protection, building stone still becomes chipped from time to time and a certain amount of patching is to be expected. Any chip obvious from a 20′ distance should be patched.…

  • Maximum Length Considerations For Cast Stone: Design Tips – Technical Bulletin #53

    Designers specifying Cast Stone often require guidance on the limitations of the possible sizes of Cast Stone elements. This Technical Bulletin addresses the many factors that must be considered in determining Cast Stone sizes including structural and physical properties of the material, manufacturing limitations, weight, transportation and handling, cost, and dimensional tolerances. By examining these factors, the…

  • Job Site Handling And Installation: Design Tips – Technical Bulletin #37

    The on-site personnel should be familiar with the applicable sections of the Cast Stone Institute Specifications and the Project Specification pertaining to delivery, storage, setting, patching, cleaning, pointing, caulking and sealing. In case of a conflict between the two specifications, the Project Specification should prevail. Where the Project Specification may not include a particular issue,…

  • Inspection And Acceptance: Design Tips – Technical Bulletin #36

    On site inspection and acceptance of Cast Stone should be performed at time of delivery and again after all material has been installed, pointed and cleaned. Final Inspection should be done prior to application of water repellents. The on site inspector should be familiar with the project specification as well as the applicable referenced standards.…

  • Hot Weather Setting Practices: Design Tips – Technical Bulletin #48

    Special precautions must be taken when setting Cast Stone in hot weather. The stone setter must take measures to ensure that the quality of the installation does not suffer from high temperatures. Hot weather is defined to be temperatures above 90 degrees F (32 degrees C).  The primary concern, to the masonry contractor during hot…

  • Freeze / Thaw Durability: Design Tips – Technical Bulletin #40

    Architectural cast stone is a product which has been used for many decades in all types of climatic conditions. In order to reasonably assure the user that the cast stone being supplied by a particular producer is durable in freeze / thaw conditions, the cast stone manufacturer has two options. The first, and most common…

  • Sealants: Design Tips – Technical Bulletin #43

    The decision on whether to use mortar with pointed joints or sealant joints between stones is a common one. All head joints at coping stones and joints at column covers, cornices, platforms, soffits, window sills and in general, all stone sections with projecting profiles, exposed top joints or rigid suspension connections to the supporting structure…

  • Pointing Of Joints: Design – Tips – Technical Bulletin #44

    Always rake and point mortar joints rather than full-bed setting and finishing in one operation. Mortar joints are best suited for masonry-bound trim items such as belt courses, lintels, window surrounds, date stones, inscription blocks, quoins, keystones and similar applications. Not all joints between stones or between stone and other material should be filled with…

  • Mortars: Design Tips – Technical Bulletin #42

    Selection of the correct grade of mortar is perhaps the most important factor in the performance of a masonry wall. The mortar must have sufficient strength, be durable, resist rain penetration as much as possible and yet be flexible enough to accommodate slight movement within the wall. Mortars used in the setting of Cast Stone…

  • Flashing And Weep Holes: Design Tips – Technical Bulletin #47

    Proper flashing and weep holes are essential elements in exterior masonry walls. Together, they provide a means to control moisture in a wall. If not addressed, moisture can have damaging effects on exterior walls. Excessive moisture within masonry can lead to crazing, efflorescence and spalling in some cases. Improper flashing can lead to moisture in the interior of…

  • Crazing: Care And Maintenance – Technical Bulletin #32

    Crazing is defined as fine and random cracking extending only through the surface. It can appear along or perpendicular to the length, in polygonal shapes or as random “map cracking.” Crazing is due to differential contraction between the surface and interior sections and many different views have been made as to the cause and elimination…

  • Efforescence: Care And Maintenance – Technical Bulletin #33

    Efflorescence is a calcium or alkaline salt which forms as a blotchy, powdery or crystalline deposit on the surface of masonry walls and concrete products. It is due to moisture entering through the walls or the surface of the Cast Stone, combining with the calcium hydroxide in the cement, and bringing the hydroxide to the…

  • Cold Weather Setting Practices: Design Tips – Technical Bulletin #41

    Never set Cast Stone on a frozen or ice covered wall. All masonry bond will be ineffectual. Cold weather building practices have been developed to protect masonry against the perils of freezing when construction must be carried on in such environments. Avoid setting stone with mortar in extreme cold. Stonework set in cold (below 40…

  • Cleaning: Care And Maintenance – Technical Bulletin #39

    During construction, prevention against staining is mandatory and becomes the best solution for a clean finished project. Every effort should be taken to protect the Cast Stone during storage, setting, and after installation. Storage of Cast Stone should be above ground on non-staining planks or pallets. The storage site should be away from heavy construction…

  • Basic Comparisons between Various Masonry Materials: Design Tips – Technical Bulletin #49

    Cast Stone is a time-tested alternative to natural cut stone and has been in existence for hundreds of years.  Through the product’s history, technical and performance standards have been established to assure long-term durability and resistance to freeze-thaw, water absorption, abrasion and dirt.  United States Cast Stone standards are designed to provide a product of…

  • Allowing for Movement of Masonry Materials: Design Tips – Technical Bulletin #52

    Building materials may experience dimensional changes and movement due to environmental conditions, such as temperature and moisture, or movement of adjacent building elements. If this movement is restrained, cracking may result. By accounting for movement in the wall design, cracking can be controlled. Movement joints are used to control and minimize cracking. There are two…

  • Air Entrainment Requirements: Design Tips – Technical Bulletin #50

    In many project specifications today, air entrainment is specified for Cast Stone mixtures when it is only required for units manufactured from wet-cast slump concrete. It is not necessary to add air entrainment additives to units manufactured from zero slump mixes. Accordingly, ASTM C 1364-02 Standard Specification for Architectural Cast Stone only requires mixtures to…